- Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, indicators of dollar funding costs in foreign exchange
markets have risen sharply, reflecting both demand and supply factors.
- The demand for dollar funding has grown in recent years, reflecting the currency hedging needs
of corporates and portfolio investors outside the United States.
- Against this backdrop, the financial turbulence of recent weeks has crimped the supply of dollar
funding from financial intermediaries, sharply lifting indicators of dollar funding costs.
- These costs have narrowed after central banks deployed dollar swap lines, but broader policy
challenges remain in ensuring that dollar funding markets remain resilient and that central
bank liquidity is channelled beyond the banking system.